Access to the botnet servers, malware servers and servers serving other objectionable content from corporate networks is being thwarted by IP black lists by IPS/IDS and UTM devices. Cyber criminals started using single flux and double flux DNS techniques to make this kind of blacklisting ineffective. These techniques change the IP address of malicious servers very frequently. In some cases IP addresses are changed every 5 minutes. Please check this link to get more information about fast flux and double flux techniques.
Criminals take advantage of compromised servers to act as redirection servers. Domain name of criminal servers get resolved to these compromised servers. When innocent users connect to this domain name (through social engineering attacks), the HTTP request lands on redirection servers. Redirection servers get the content from original malicious server (Honeynet white paper calls it Mother ship server) and serve to the innocent users. The list of compromised servers to be given in a DNS instance is determined by many factors such as whether the compromised redirector is online, bandwidth of the link that internet link of the compromised redirector etc.. Since the cyber criminals run the DNS server along with malicious content server, they have control over which IP addresses to send as part of DNS response. This technique is called fast flux as the IP addresses of the domain name registered by criminal changes very often.
From the attack description provided in honeynet link, Cyber criminals rent botnet for redirection servers. Botnets owners would have compromised unhardened victim machines for their nefarious activities. It appears that some botnets have thousand of compromised systems. Many of home users PCs are typically infected with botnets.
Since the IP addresses of domain name keeps changing, traditional blacklisting technique that uses IP addresses is ineffective. Also, it becomes difficult to identify the mothership servers. To thwart this kind of attack, security developers also started creating blacklists for DNS Servers. This thwarting technique also depends on IP addresses.
Now attackers started using double flux technique, where DNS Server IP addresses also change very frequently. This requires change of Name Server IP addresses in DNS registrars or resellers. As some registrars making this facility available through programming interfaces (web based interface), this is being automated by cyber criminals (I need to verify this statement). Some service providers are lax and don't follow guidelines of checking credentials while registering the domain names or while changing the name server IP addresses.
Since two kinds of IP addresses are changed - Name server IP address change, DNS resolution IP addresses, this technique is called double flux. This technique can't be solved by IP address blacklisting.
IP address based blacklisting is some what effective when used with single flux. Double flux technique makes that ineffective. It appears now that domain name is fixed in both kinds of techniques. Mitigation is possible if domain names are checked.
DNS domain name blacklists are required to thwart this attack. www.malwaredomains.com
provides the list of domain names hosting malware content. IDS/IPS devices should have intelligent DNS application engine to extract domain names from DNS query and check against this list.
Some characteristics of DNS replies when these techniques were used. They are:
- TTL is around 5 minutes to 30 minutes.
- Multiple IP addresses in Answer section.
Since this kind of DNS replies are possible in some normal cases, this information can't be used to stop the DNS traffic by IPS devices. But it provides valuable information for offline analysis and to track the ultimate malware server with the help of service providers.